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Glossary of Dehumidification Terms

Absorption:
The penetration of one substance into the inner structure of another substance. Frequently there is a reaction of the absorbed molecules with the absorbent, which is expended. Absorption is distinguished from adsorption in which one substance is attracted to, held on the surface of another substance and then stored internally until ambient vapor pressure is reduced. Some deliquescent salts such as lithium chloride absorb water vapor from air. As the process continues the vapor reacts and forms a liquid. The absorbent may be consumed in the process as absorption may cause a phase change of the absorbent substance.

Adiabatic:
A thermodynamic process during which energy (heat) is neither added to nor removed from the system. The process is plotted on a psychrometric chart showing constant enthalpy between state points. The energy content of the mass of the air and humidity mixture remains constant: Btu/Lb (Cal/KG). A change in humidity results in a change in temperature such that the total energy is constant. Static dehumidification by use of a desiccant (such as may be used in (packaging) is an adiabatic process in which moisture is removed from air while the temperature is proportionately increased.


Adsorption:
Adherence of molecules of a gas (vapor) to the surface of another substance called the adsorbent. Materials that adsorb molecules and can then be reactivated are called desiccants. Finely divided or micro-porous materials presenting large areas of active surfaces are strong adsorbents. Activated carbon, activated alumina, silica gel, and molecular sieves of varying size and shapes are examples of adsorbents. When vapor molecules of two or more different substances are present, those of one substance may be more readily adsorbed than those of the other substance(s). The priority of adsorption is directly related to the polarity of the molecule being adsorbed. Adsorbents do not change phase due to the adsorption process. Adsorption is thought to occur as a mono-molecular process, i.e. one molecular layer adheres to the surface of the adsorbent. However, micelles of water vapor (aggregates of molecules in chain form) are sometimes present in air and may form linked chains to the surface of an adsorbent. These chains are held to the adsorbent surface by one molecule. The effect may add to the capacity of the adsorbent to hold adsorbed molecules.


Amorphous:
Non-solid, non-crystalline substance having no molecular lattice structures that is characteristic of the solid state. All liquids are amorphous. Amorphous materials that are apparently solid, such as glass, silica gel, etc. lack a definite crystal structure and a well-defined melting point. These materials are considered high viscosity liquids. Amorphous materials may be strengthened, reinforced or tempered. Silica gel desiccant is an amorphous material that we have learned to use as a dependable desiccant.

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Angstrom:
A unit of length of one one-hundred-millionth (10-8) centimeter (10-10 meter or 10-7 mm). Used in stating dimensions of molecules, atoms and atomic particles. SSCR types M and Ultra rotors utilize an in-situ manufactured advanced form of silica gel that has a macro-pore opening of 20 to 30 angstroms. The water molecule
has an effective diameter of 3.2 angstroms.

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Anhydrous:
Descriptive of an inorganic compound that does not contain water either adsorbed on its surface or combined as the water of crystallization. Dry.

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ARI:
The Air-conditioning & Refrigeration Institute. ARI offices are located in Arlington, Virginia.
The scope of the Desiccant Cooling and Dehumidification Equipment Section covers desiccant dehumidification.

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ASHRAE:
The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. ASHRAE offices are located in Atlanta, Georgia. The scope of Technical Committee TC 3.5 Desiccant and Sorption Technology covers desiccant dehumidification.

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Attrition (Desiccant):
The loss of desiccant material due to chemical, physical or thermal breakdown. The cause of the breakdown may be due to mechanical agitation, thermal cycling or chemical action such as ion exchange or deliquescent properties.

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BCHP see CHP for Buildings:


Cassette for SSCR Desiccant Rotors:
A desiccant dehumidifier module designed to be installed with air handling equipment. The unit includes the desiccant section housed in a sturdy frame with block-off panels; airs seals, and drive system. Cassettes are available in aluminum, stainless steel or galvanized construction for all sizes of SSCR rotors. Reactivation blower, heater and heater controls are not included with standard cassettes.

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Ceramic:
Ceramics are made from molten masses of raw materials usually requiring the application of high temperature under controlled conditions in an oven or furnace in order to produce the final properties required for use as an engineering material. The basis of most ceramics are hydrous aluminosilicates. Other raw materials include anhydrous aluminosilicates containing potassium, sodium and calcium. Ceramic filaments or fibers are used to reinforce other materials and to form structural shapes.

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CHP for Buildings:
An acronym for Cooling Heating and Power for Buildings. Formerly, referred to as BCHP. A concept of using thermally driven prime movers for HVAC equipment and power generation to allow a building to operate independent of the electric power grid. Recovered thermal energy is used by other equipment such as a desiccant dehumidifier, or for heating a building space or water loop. Together, the COP of the installed equipment is higher than that of the prime mover.

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Co-efficient of Performance (COP):
The ratio of the rate of net heat output to the total energy input expressed in consistent units and under designated rating conditions. Most commonly associated with the ratio of refrigeration capacity to the work absorbed by the compressor per unit of time. For desiccant dehumidifiers it has become typical to express COP as the ratio of BTU/Hr of latent heat removed from an air stream to the heat input measured at the regeneration heater.


CoolSorb™:
SG America's product line of integrated desiccant dehumidification and vapor compression cooling technologies utilizing SSCR rotors. CoolSorb™ units use a single air stream for both reactivation and "process" air, and can be used in difficult applications where outside air is not available for reactivation. Energy consumption is 33% of a standard desiccant dehumidifier and 60% of a mechanical unit rated at 68F and 60% RH, requiring only a single air stream.


Creation and Fusion:
Comprehensive business philosophy of Seibu Giken Co., Ltd. And SG America. An approach to meeting the needs of customers today and in the future. An aggressive approach to research and development, balancing energy conservation, economic value and environmental protection, to create advanced air quality solutions that fuse technology with human and environmental needs.

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Dehumidification:
The removal of water vapor from air. Dehumidification can be accomplished by cooling an air stream to below its dew point temperature causing the condensation of vapor or by desiccant adsorption/absorption resulting in removal of humidity from air in the vapor phase.

Deliquescent:
Tendency of a material to absorb atmospheric moisture (humidity) and become liquid. The term refers specifically to water-soluble chemical salts (e.g. lithium chloride) in the form of powders that are dissolved by the moisture absorbed from air.


DER:
Distributed Energy Resources as fostered by the U.S. Department of Energy. Power generators are located close to or within the point of use rather than at a central generation station with distribution grid. The power generators such as micro-turbines, mini-trubines or ICE/gen-sets are distributed rather than the power itself being distributed over high tension transmission lines.

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Desiccant:
Generally, a hygroscopic substance such as silica gel, molecular sieve, activated alumina, etc. having the ability to adsorb moisture from air and be reactivated (regenerated) by thermal or other means without loss of physical properties. Desiccants are used to maintain a dry (dehumidified) air stream or environment. Some salts, such as lithium chloride and calcium chloride are utilized as desiccants, these are known as absorbers.


Desiccant Cooling:
The use of desiccant dehumidification systems for latent heat (humidity) removal in air conditioning systems in conjunction with sensible heat transfer or evaporative cooling equipment to perform cooling without the use of or with supplemental use of vapor compression equipment. Desiccant cooling equipment is used to treat outdoor air by reducing both sensible and latent (temperature and humidity) loads during cooling seasons. Some systems also include winter heating and humidification components for all season service.

Desiccant Dehumidification:
Passive or Static: The removal of moisture from air by exposing the humid air to a desiccant without the use of an air moving device. Once the desiccant achieves moisture equilibrium with the ambient air the dehumidification process stops and the desiccant must be replaced with active desiccant or removed and reactivated. E.g. Packaged or "bagged" desiccant placed in shipping containers for the purpose of preventing moisture condensation during transit or storage; laboratory desiccators.
Dynamic or Active: The removal of moisture from air by exposing the humid air to a desiccant with the use of an air moving device and a concurrent reactivation (regeneration) process such as by applying thermal heat or pressure swings. The reactivation process can be either intermittent such as for "dual tower" dehumidifiers or concurrent and continuous such as for "rotary" dehumidifiers, e.g. rotary desiccant dehumidifiers such as the SG America DryStar, DrySorb Desiccant Dehumidifiers.

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Desiccant Ventilation:
The removal of moisture from air by exposing the humid air to a desiccant with the use of an air moving device and a concurrent reactivation (regeneration) process which is solely dependent upon the difference in the partial vapor pressure of moisture between the ventilation (outdoor) air and exhaust air streams. E.g. an enthalpy wheel. Enthalpy wheels are used to reduce the impact of ambient temperature and humidity of ventilation air on cooling and heating systems. Increased rates of ventilation air are recommended to maintain good indoor air quality (reference ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 currently under continuous maintenance).


Desorption:
The removal (release) of adsorbed moisture from a desiccant. See Reactivation.


Dew Point:
The temperature at which an air sample is saturated with water vapor (100% relative humidity). Cooling of the sample below the dew point temperature would cause condensation of the water vapor to occur.


Dry Air:
Air containing no moisture (humidity). Dry air is a mixture of several gases, the composition of which varies with altitude and other conditions at the point of measurement. Dry air at sea level consists of nitrogen (78% by volume, 75.53% by weight), oxygen (20.95% by volume, 23.16% by weight), argon (0.93% by volume) and carbon dioxide, neon, helium, methane, krypton, nitrous oxide, hydrogen, xenon and ozone (balance). The concentration of ozone by volume at sea level is 0.000,001%. "Standard Air" used in scientific and HVAC calculations is dry air by definition with a density of 0.075 lb/ft3 at 68°F, 29.921" Hg (1.29 g/liter at 0 °C, 760 mm Hg). However, dry air does not exist in nature due to atmospheric moisture. The "air" we breathe is a mixture of air and moisture. The addition of moisture into air displaces the molecules of air and directly affects the density of air. In HVAC work, "dry air" is air referred to as air with a humidity value that is lower then the ambient air. The degree of dryness is determined by measuring and comparing relative humidity or dew point temperature of the "dry" air and the ambient air.

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Dry Bulb Temperature: See Temperature.

DrySorb™:
SG America's product line of integrated desiccant dehumidification and vapor compression cooling technologies utilizing SSCR rotors. Available in EconoSorb™ and CoolSorb™ models. Units incorporate the Seibu Giken SSCR rotor and use the heat of rejection from the condenser coil as the reactivation energy.


DryStar Pro™
An SG America family of desiccant dehumidification products designed for the water damage professional, temporary humidity control, research laboratories, storage and small production areas. Available as AquaSorb™, ConSorb™, and RecuSorb™ models. All incorporate the Seibu Giken SSCR Ultra rotor. These quick drying desiccant dehumidifiers remove more water from furnishings and structures than do refrigerant based dehumidifiers, while producing lower dew point air for the prevention of mold and mildew growth.

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EconoSorb™
SG America's product line of integrated desiccant dehumidification and vapor compression cooling technologies, utilizing SSCR rotors. EconoSorb™ units utilize an independent air stream for the desiccant reactivation air. Energy consumption is 25% of a standard desiccant dehumidifier and 50% of a mechanical unit rated at 68F and 60% RH.


Encapsulate:
Complete and total covering or surrounding of one material by another. The encapsulated material can be neither seen nor felt at the surface of the finished product. The advanced silica gel desiccant in the SG America rotor encapsulates the ceramic fiber substrate. The ceramic fiber gives the rotor its strength and shape.


Enthalpy:
A thermodynamic property of a substance defined as its internal energy. Formerly called "total heat" or "heat content". Enthalpy refers to the total value of sensible plus latent heat
or energy. Unit of measurement is Btu/lb. In psychrometrics, it is expressed as Btu/lb.
of moist air. Symbol: h.

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E-Save™:
SG America's high performance desiccant dehumidifier, utilizing recovered thermal energy for maximum efficiency. The first desiccant dehumidifier product line designed for use with a micro-turbine power generator. Allows for treatment of 100% outside air for superior IAQ control, and designed for use in office buildings, hotels, atriums, health care facilities, theatres and shopping malls.


Fiberglass:
A fine amorphous, brittle, usually transparent filament. A material made up of fine filaments.


Grain(s):
A unit of weight. One grain is equivalent to 1/7000 of a pound. The unit is derived from old English measures where a 7000 grains of wheat were used as an equivalent of a pound.
By comparison, one gram is equivalent to 1/453.6 of a pound. In psychrometric work,
the unit of grain(s) is used in the expression of humidity where it expresses the ratio of weight of moisture per pound of dry air. E.g., 70 GPP: Humidity Ratio (W) = (70 / 7000) = 0.010. Symbol: GPP (Grains Per Pound of dry air).

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Heat of Vaporization:
The heat (energy) required for a substance to change phase from liquid to vapor. Expressed as Btu/lb. The heat of vaporization is referenced to pressure and temperature. The heat of vaporization for water at 29.921 inches of mercury (14.7psia) atmospheric pressure and 212 °F is 970 Btu/lb. For many air conditioning calculations (70 °F at 50% RH) the value of 1076 Btu/lb. is used for the heat of vaporization. At saturation (100% RH) and 70 °F, a value of 1112 Btu/lb. would be correct.


Hi-Panex™:
Trademark of Seibu Giken Co., Ltd. for a product line of sensible and enthalpy heat exchange wheels. Sensible wheels transfer heat from higher temperature air streams to lower temperature air streams. Enthalpy wheels transfer heat like sensible wheels and in addition transfer moisture from higher humidity air streams to lower humidity air streams. Hi-Panex enthalpy wheels are the first to use "ion-power" rather than desiccants to transfer water vapor. Heat wheels are typically used to treat ventilation air and reduce the temperature and humidity load on a building's HVAC operating system. Hi-Panex wheels and cassettes are available to treat airstreams of up to 50,000 cfm.


Humidity:
Water vapor contained in air. Expressed as specific, relative, or absolute humidity. Common units of measure are: percent relative humidity (RH), partial vapor pressure, grains of moisture per pound of dry air (GPP), dew point or humidity ratio (W). The amount of vapor that air can hold is a function of the air temperature.

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Hygroscopic:
Descriptive of a substance that has the property of adsorbing or absorbing moisture from air. The water vapor molecules are held by or bound within the molecules of the hygroscopic material. Desiccants are hygroscopic materials, e.g. silica gel, molecular sieve,
lithium chloride or calcium chloride. Some other examples are dry powders as used in pharmaceuticals, baked goods, and confectionery ingredients. Other materials include cardboard including cardboard boxes used as containers for stored goods.


IAQ:
Indoor air quality.


Impregnate:
A process by which one material is permeated by another substance or material.
Frequently, binders are also used to retain a material or substance in the impregnated material or substance.

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Ion-Exchange Resin:
Ion-exchange resins are reactive solids, which have the property of exchanging ions from both liquid and gaseous solutions. Properties include: complete insolubility in water and solvents to prevent imparting tastes, odors, or color to solutions being treated; high exchange capacity per volumetric unit; rapid and complete exchange with counter-ions; chemical stability to prevent degradation by oxidizing and reducing agents; resistance to osmotic shock to prevent breakdown. Ion-exchange resins have been used for years in industrial processes to remove selected gases from air streams. Seibu Giken is the first to apply ion-exchange resins to the removal of water vapor from air streams in place of a desiccant in an enthalpy exchange "Heat" wheel. Heat wheels are commonly used to treat ventilation air for buildings. The highly polarized water molecule acts like an ion and has a higher order of attraction to the resin as compared to gases with lower polarization or those that are non-ionized.


Lithium chloride:
White deliquescent crystals that are very soluble in water and alcohol. One of the most hygroscopic salts known. Low toxicity. Manufactured by the reaction of lithium ores with chlorides. With proper controls, lithium chloride is used as an absorption material for dehumidification of air.


Matrix:
A structure or configuration of a material which gives shape to the finished product
and in which another material or structure develops, takes shape, or is contained.

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Micron:
Unit of length. A micrometer is one millionth (10-6) of a meter or 10,000 Angstroms.


Moisture Removal Capacity:
A measure of the capacity of a dehumidifier expressed in Lbs./Hr of moisture removal. Symbol: MRC. Equation: MRC = (CFM * (60 min/hr / Vs) * (GPPin - GPPout)) / 7000 Grains/Lb. Where CFM is the volumetric rate of air expressed in Ft3/Minute, Vs is the specific volume of air expressed as Ft3/Lb and GPP is Grains of moisture per pound of dry air. GPPin - GPPout represents the grain "depression" or removal across the dehumidifier.


Molecular Sieve:
A group of synthetic adsorptive desiccants that are crystalline aluminosilicate materials, chemically similar to a class of minerals known as zeolites. The outstanding characteristic of these materials is their ability to undergo dehydration with little or no change in crystal structure. The dehydrated crystals are interlaced with regularly spaced channels of molecular dimensions. Internal voids (cavities) comprise almost 50% of the total volume of the crystals. The empty cavities in activated "molecular sieve" crystals have a strong tendency to recapture the water molecules that have been driven off by the reactivation process. This adsorption tendency is so strong that if no water vapor is present they will accept most any vapor that can pass through its aperture (pore) into the cavity. Only molecules that are small enough to pass through the pores of the crystal can enter the cavities and be adsorbed or stored on the interior surface. This sieving or screening action, which makes it possible to separate smaller molecules from larger ones, is a most useful characteristic of molecular sieves. Pore sizes are determined by selection of appropriate cations that partially block the crystalline aperture of the molecular sieve. The remaining open "space" becomes the nominal pore diameter. Two types of molecular sieves are commercially available: Type A with pore diameters of 3, 4 and 5 Angstroms, Type X with pore diameters of 10 or 13 Angstroms. The internal cavity surface and volume determine the capacity of the molecular sieve. A molecular sieve can store or hold adsorbed moisture up to approximately 20 to 30% of its own weight. Above a threshold relative humidity (10 to 30 % varies by type), molecular sieves have a flat capacity profile (pounds of moisture adsorbed per pound of desiccant).

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Particle size:
A particle is a discreet unit of matter. Particle size refers mainly to the solid particles of which materials are composed. The smaller the particle, the greater will be the total exposed surface area compared to its volume. Activity is a direct function of surface area; i.e. the finer a substance is, the more efficiently it will react, both chemically and physically such as in adsorption. The size ranges of particles are described as follows:
Subatomic: Protons, neutrons, electrons, etc.
Molecular: Atoms and molecules with size ranging from a few angstroms to about half a micron.
Colloidal: Macromolecules, micelles (aggregates of molecules), and ultra-fine particles resolved in electron microscope; size ranges from 1 milli-micron up to the lower limit of the optical microscope (1 micron).
Microscopic: Particles that can be resolved by an optical microscope.
Macroscopic: Particles that are visible to the unaided eye.


Perm:
An empirical unit of water vapor permanence of one grain (1/7000 lb.) flowing through one square foot induced by a vapor pressure of one inch of mercury.



Psychrometric Chart:
A graphical representation of the properties of moist (humid) air, usually including dry bulb and wet bulb temperatures, specific and relative humidity, dew point temperature, partial vapor pressure, humidity ratio, enthalpy, and specific volume.

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Psychrometrics:
The branch of science (physics), concerned with the measurement or determination of atmospheric conditions, particularly of moist air.


Reactivation:
Reactivation or regeneration is the process of removing adsorbed moisture held bound by a desiccant. By removing the moisture, the desiccant is again ready to adsorb moisture from an air stream. In rotary dehumidification equipment, the reactivation process is continuous and concurrent with the adsorption cycle and is accomplished by thermal heating of the desiccant. In dual tower packed bed dehumidification equipment, the reactivation process occurs with the dehumidifier "off stream" and is not concurrent with the adsorption cycle being accomplished by either thermal heating or pressure swings.

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Regeneration: See Reactivation.



Relative Humidity:
The proportional amount of humidity contained in a sample of air compared to the maximum amount of humidity that the sample could hold at a given temperature and pressure.


Rotor:
A formed structure, sometimes corrugated, containing a series of parallel flute shaped channels that hold and contain a desiccant within the flute wall for use in a dehumidifier. Flutes can be triangular, hexagonal, cylindrical or have other shapes. The rotor includes an outer casement (wrapper) to protect the flute structure, hub and supporting spokes (arms).

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Silica gel:
A synthesized (manmade) adsorbent material, consisting of amorphous silica. Manufactured by treating sodium silicate with acid (usually sulfuric) and/or other chemicals. Silica gel is chemically inactive and is non-toxic, non-combustible, and non-corrosive. Used as a dehumidifying desiccant. Silica gel is commercially available in granular, powder, spherical, bead or other special forms. Some silica gel desiccants include metallic thermal stabilizers. Silica gel has crystalline-like structure with large surface (macro) pores and smaller interstitial micro-pores with capillary channels. Silica gel has an extremely large "surface" area due to the extensive internal network of micro-pores and capillary channels. A teaspoon full of silica gel powder has as much "surface" area as a football field. This large area serves as the storage site of the adsorbed moisture. Silica gel adsorbs polar molecules that are drawn into the channels by capillary action and stored there until reactivation. Silica gel can store or hold adsorbed moisture up to approximately 40 per cent of its own weight. Silica gel's capacity (lbs. of moisture adsorbed per lb. of desiccant) varies with relative humidity at ambient temperature.


Sodium silicate:
High volume synthetic silicate. Sodium silicate is the simplest form of glass. Gels are
formed by treatment with acids, coagulated by brine and precipitated (see Silica Gel).
Non-toxic, non-combustible.


SSCR™:
Synthesized Silica Ceramic Rotor. Trademark of Seibu Giken Co., Ltd.

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Standard Air:
Standard air is dry air (no moisture content - see Dry Air) with it's properties measured at a referenced altitude, temperature, and pressure. IP: 0.075 lb/ft3 at sea level, 68 °F, 29.921 inches Hg. SI: 1.29 g/liter at sea level, 20 °C, 101.325 kPa (760 mm Hg.) Standard air values are used in HVAC calculations and rating of equipment performance to allow for a means of comparison. Correction factors for altitude and temperature are applied to calculations and performance data in order to determine the performance of equipment at "actual" conditions.


Synthesized:
Manmade material designed and manufactured for specific properties similar or identical to naturally occurring elements or for enhanced performance or economy.

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Temperature:
Dry bulb: The temperature of an air sample indicated by an ordinary thermometer.
Wet bulb: The temperature of an air sample indicated by a thermometer when the bulb is covered with a water saturated wick over which the air passes at approximately 1000 fpm when the air temperature reaches the equilibrium temperature of the water evaporating into the air. The heat of vaporization is supplied by the sensible heat of the air sample.

Ultra Rotor™: See SSCR


Vaporization:
The change of state (phase) of a substance from liquid to vapor. Requires and input or energy.


Weeping:
Tendency of a deliquescent material to become a liquid solution and "weep", drip, leak
or run from a dehumidification wheel typically using lithium chloride as the absorbent.

Wet Bulb Temperature: See Temperature.


Wheel: See Rotor.


Zeolite:
A natural mineral having desiccant properties. Synthetic zeolites, called molecular sieves, are made in a variety of forms and are used for dehumidification as well as the collection
and classification by size (sieving) of gas molecules.

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